STEM110T 33597

My provisions to help Norfolk become a more sustainable city were very simple.  The implementation of different transit options would lead to a city that was more eco-friendly, as well as tourist friendly.  A metro or train system would make it easy to get around in downtown Norfolk.  It would also reduce the amount of cars on the roads, which in turn reduces the amount of pollution to the environment; the emissions of CO2 would decrease.  Constructing bike paths or more sidewalks also would make it easier for people to navigate in the city; it makes for a more welcoming feeling.  People riding bikes will eliminate congestion on the highways.  My proposals aren’t that expensive.  The metro building may be a little costly, but the long term benefits of it will be worth the costs.

  • How many people does Steffen estimate we will have living in or near cities by mid-century?

We will have 8 billion people living in or near cities by mid-century.

  • Explain how you agree or disagree with Steffen’s point that our energy use is “predestined” rather than “behavioral”.

I completely agree with this point.  Our energy is considered predestined because the type of living conditions of a city basically determine the amount of energy used.

  • What correlation does Steffen make between a city’s density and its climate emissions?

He concludes that denser cities have lower climate emissions.  Transportation is a major factor; denser cities have less needs for transportation so the emissions are lower.

  • What are the “eco districts” that Steffen mentions? How you see these as feasible or unfeasible in a city likeNorfolk?

The eco districts are places of new development that are made into sustainable neighborhoods.

  • Explain how you agree or disagree with the “threshold effect” that Steffen discusses related to transportation.

I do agree with the threshold effect.  The first place where I saw this evident was New York City.  I don’t think a car would be a good investment if everything you need (family, work, etc.) are all in the same area; public transportation would be just fine.

  • What does Steffen mean by the idea that, “…even space itself is turning into a service…”? Can you provide any examples that you see here in Norfolk or elsewhere?

The idea that space is turning into a service explains how businesses are using the natural aspects of space to help them function.  Things like natural sunlight and air through the windows are some services that space provide.  The new design of the library on campus or Dragas, which include a lot of glass, is a way to save energy by using natural light.

  • Describe your understanding of Steffen’s argument that, “…it’s not about the leaves above, but the systems below…”.

I think Steffen is saying that it doesn’t matter what resources we have, but how we use the resources to their fullest potential.

  • Finally, overall in what way(s) do you see Steffen’s ideas working / not working here in Norfolk? Spend time with this question!

                        I think that Norfolk would be a good place to implement Steffen’s ideas.  It is a major city, and it’s steadily growing so the potential to use the space and resources to make Norfolk a city that is more eco-friendly is very high.

Barach, J.  M. (2004) .  Applying Marketing Principles to Social Causes.  Business Horizons, 7 (4), 65-69.

There are always attempts by social organizations to change society’s behaviors through marketing.  The main focus of these attempts, however, seems to be influenced largely by the marketing organizations and at the end of the day they just want to make the sale.  The problem with this is that the purposes of the campaigns by the social organizations lose their effectiveness.  The goal from the marketing aspect is to call people to action and purchase the product, whereas the goal from the social (also referred to as educational) perspective is to teach so people can learn about their behaviors; these are among many other differences between the aspects (audience attitudes, implementation, etc.).  So what Barach outlines is a way to integrate the differences and goals from both the educational and marketing perspectives to address these social causes the best way possible.  By bringing the concepts together, the effectiveness of the social program campaigns will become more effective.


Barach’s analysis of integrating the aspects makes perfect sense to me.  The best way to ignite a change is to aim to work on people’s attitudes toward their behaviors.  Combining this with the idea of a product that will enforce their new good behavior is a way to ensure a consistent system of selling products.

I would say technology and I have a pretty solid relationship.  I may not know the ins and outs of all of the latest programs or the most efficient way to use the latest technology, but I know enough to get things done.  I will admit that some technology is intimidating/overwhelming, so sometimes I find it easier to just stick to what I know.

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